EGYPTIAN COMPLETE SET OF CANOPIC JARS
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ART COMPLETE SET OF FOUR CANOPIC JARS EACH ONE WERE USED FOR THE SAFEKEEPING OF PARTICULAR HUMAN ORGANS,HANDMADE , MADE IN EGYPT.
WEIGHT LBS 7.63
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canopic jar, in ancient Egyptian funerary ritual, covered vessel of wood, stone, pottery, or faience in which was buried the embalmed viscera removed from a body during the process of mummification. The earliest canopic jars, which came into use during the Old Kingdom (c. 2575–c. 2130 BCE), had plain lids, but during the Middle Kingdom (c. 1938–c. 1630 BCE) the jars were decorated with sculpted human heads; from the 19th dynasty until the end of the New Kingdom (1539–1075 BCE), the heads represented the four sons of the god Horus (jackal-headed Duamutef, falcon-headed Qebehsenuf, human-headed Imset, and baboon-headed Hapy). From the 21st to the 25th dynasty (1075–664 BCE), the practice began of returning the embalmed viscera to the body, prompting the appearance of “dummy” canopic jars, vessels in the shape of images of the sons of Horus but with no interior cavity.
EGYPTIAN COMPLETE SET OF CANOPIC JARS
Egyptian complete set of Canopic jars were used by the ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from limestone or were made of pottery. These jars were used by the ancient Egyptians from the time of the Old Kingdom until the time of the Late Period or the Ptolemaic Period, by which time the viscera were simply wrapped and placed with the body. The viscera were not kept in a single canopic jar: each jar was reserved for specific organs. The term canopic reflects the mistaken association by early Egyptologists with the Greek legend of Canopus – the boat captain of Menelaus on the voyage to Troy – “who was buried at Canopus in the Delta where he was worshipped in the form of a jar”.[
Canopic jars of the Old Kingdom were rarely inscribed and had a plain lid. In the Middle Kingdom inscriptions became more usual, and the lids were often in the form of human heads. By the Nineteenth Dynasty each of the four lids depicted one of the four sons of Horus, as guardians of the organs.
Use and design
The canopic jars were four in number, each for the safekeeping of particular human organs: the stomach, intestines, lungs, and liver, all of which, it was believed, would be needed in the afterlife. There was no jar for the heart: the Egyptians believed it to be the seat of the soul, and so it was left inside the body.[n 1]
Many Old Kingdom canopic jars were found empty and damaged, even in undisturbed tombs. Therefore it seems that they were never used as containers. Instead, it seems that they were part of burial rituals and were placed after these rituals, empty.
The design of canopic jars changed over time. The oldest date from the Eleventh or the Twelfth Dynasty, and are made of stone or wood. The last jars date from the New Kingdom. In the Old Kingdom the jars had plain lids, though by the First Intermediate Period jars with human heads (assumed to represent the dead) began to appear. Sometimes the covers of the jars were modeled after (or painted to resemble) the head of Anubis, the god of death and embalming. By the late Eighteenth Dynasty canopic jars had come to feature the four sons of Horus. Many sets of jars survive from this period, in alabaster, aragonite, calcareous stone, and blue or green glazed porcelain. The sons of Horus were also the gods of the cardinal compass points. Each god was responsible for protecting a particular organ and was himself protected by a companion goddess. They were:
- Hapi, the baboon-headed god representing the North, whose jar contained the lungs and was protected by the goddess Nephthys. Hapi is often used interchangeably with the Nile god Hapi, though they are actually different gods.
- Duamutef, the jackal-headed god representing the East, whose jar contained the stomach and was protected by the goddess Neith
- Imsety, the human-headed god representing the South, whose jar contained the liver and was protected by the goddess Isis
- Qebehsenuef, the falcon-headed god representing the West, whose jar contained the intestines and was protected by the goddess Serqet.
|Dimensions||5 × 5 × 20 cm|
HANDMADE , MADE IN EGYPT, PAINTED